B.Sc Syllabus of Chemistry
BSc Syllabus of Chemistry
Paper Code : CH-101 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Units & dimension : (SI units to be used & encouraged). Bonding in organic compounds : Stereochemistry: Reaction Mechanism: Electrolytic conductance : Phase Rule: Radioactivity and Nuclear Structure of Atoms: Chemical analysis :
- Atomic Structure :
- Bohr,s atomic model & limitation. Idea of de Broglie matter weaves. Hisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Schrödinger’s wave equation. Significance of wave function. Quantum numbers. Multielectron system-Pauli’s exclusion principal, Hunds rules of maximum multiplicity. Stability of half filled full field orbitals, Afbau principal & its limitation. Electronic configuration of atoms.
- Kinetic Theory of Gases : Distribution of molecular, velocities root-mean-square velocity, elementary kinetic molecular theory of ideal gases, deduction of kinetic gas equation. P=?mnc-2,deduction of gases laws.
- Classification, trivial names and IUPAC system of nomenclature of organic compounds. Nature of covalent bond and its orbital representation. Hybridization, bond energy, polarity of bond & dipole moment of molecules, inductive effect, hydrogen bond, conjugation, resonance. Hemolytic & heterolytic fission of bonds electrophiles & nucleophiles, carbonation, carbon ions and radicals- there stability, geometry & generation.
- Dissymmetric Molecules: Different types of Isomerism,Structural Isomers,Geometrical, Stereoisomerism, Configurational Isomers, Conformational Isomers, Concept of asymmetric carbon atom, Enantiomers, Diastereiosmers, Stereogenic atom / center, Chirotopic / Achirotopic Centre, Protereoisomerism, Concept of Topicity of Ligands and Faces (Homotopic, Enantiotopic, Diastereotopic atoms and groups; Prochiral, Homotopic, Enantiotopic, Diastereotopic Faces), Projection Structures of Streoisomers (Fischer, Swahorse, Newman, Flying-Wedge projection and Interconversion of these projections formulas) of simple molecules containing one or two asymmetric carbon atom, Optical isomerism, Optical activity, Element of symmetry and chirality, Meso compounds, Chiral centers and the number of stereoisomers, Racemic modifications, Racemic mixture or (+/-)-Conglomerate, Racemic Compounds or racenate, Stereochemical nomenclature of Stereoisomers containing chiral centers(R/S and E/Z or cis-trans or sec cis- sec trans of C=C system);D,L system of designation; Pro-R, Pro-S, Re, Si, Erythro, threo, Pref and Praf designation of enantiotopic groups and atoms; Chirality of Organic molecules without chiral center and concept of chiral axis.
- SN1 & SN2 reaction, E1&E2 reaction (elementary treatment) of aliphatic hydrocarbon. Saytzeff & Hofmann elimation. Nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution.
- specific, equivalent and molar conduction, their variation with concentration in case of strong and weak electrolytes, measurement of conduction, Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions, ionic mobility and conductance, transferrance number, conduct metric titration.
- Phase, component, system, degrees of freedom. The phase rule. Phase diagram of one component system: water. Heterogeneous systems: Nerast distribution law, miscibility and distillation of binary liquid mixture, aziotroic mixtures, critical solution temperature (elementary idea).
- Radioactive disintegration series, group displacement law, law of radioactive decay, half-life and average life of radio elements, radio active equilibrium, measurement of radioactivity. Stability of atomic nucleus, n/p ratio. Radioisotopes and their application: Determination of age of earth, radio carbon dating, Medicinal and agriculture use of isotopes, hazards of radio activity.
- Gravimetric Analysis- Solubility product and common ion effect, requirement of gravimetry, Techniques of Precipitations, filtration, washing, drying, igniting and weighing precipitates. Gravimetric estimation of chloride & nickel. Volumetric analysis – primary and secondary standard substance/(solution). Principles of acid-base, oxidation- reduction and complexometric titration. Acid-Base, redox and metal ion indicators. Analysis of real samples: Sampling techniques, methods of dissolution of solid samples for chemical analysis. Determination of hardness water. Estimation of glucose& phenol. Accuracy and precision in quantitative analysis, errors, standard deviations.
Practical Paper code : CH-191
Full Marks: 100
- Detection of elements & functional groups:
- Detection of elements (N,S,Cl,Br,I ), unsaturation & all the functional groups ( alcoholic & phenolic hydroxyl/ aldehydic & ketonic carbonyl / carboxylic acid & aromatic amino, anilide and nitro) present in a supplied mono- or bi- functional organic compounds.
Paper Code : CH-201 (Theoretical)
Covalent Bonding: Double & complex salt: The noble gases: Real gases: First law of thermodynamics: Viscosity: Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes: Aromatics Hydrocarbons Aromatic substitution reactions : Stereochemistry: Solubility and solubility product:
Full Marks : 100
- Chemical Bonding and Structure:
- Ionic Bonding:
- General characteristics of ionic compounds: ionization energy, electron affinity etc. Sizes of ions, radius ratio rule and its limitation. Lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle.
- General characteristics of covalent compounds, valence bond approach, directional character of covalent bond, hybridization involving s-, p- and d- orbitals. Valence State Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) concept, shapes pf simple molecules and ions. Fajan’s Rules. Hydrogen bonding and its effect of physical and chemical properties. Others types of molecular interaction.
- Werner;s theory of co ordination compounds. Chalets. Polydentate ligands including naturally occurring ones. Electronic interpretation of compounds formation. Stepwise and overall stability constants. ( elementary idea only) Geometrical & optical isomerism. Nomenclature of co or dination compounds.
- Occurrence, general properties, electronic structure 7 position in the periodic table. Elementary Xenon compounds (bonding and structures excluded).
- Deviations from ideal behavior vander Waal’s equation. Andrews exprement, critical phenomena in light in Vander wlla’s equation state, community of state.
- Cyclic process, Reversible & irreversible process , internal energy, enthalpy, work done an isothermal & adiabatic pricess, heat capacities, Cp-Cv =R for an ideal gas.
- Definition & determination of Oswald’s viscomers, variation with temperature for liquid and gases.
- Isomerism, synthesis , chemical reactivity of alkanes, Mechanism of free radical helogination of alkanes, sulphonation of alkanes. Chemical reactivity, hydrogenation, heat of hydrogenation and stability of alkanes, electrophilic addition reaction & mechanism, helogination, hydrohelogination, hydration, hydroboration, Markownikoffs rule, peroxide effect, 1-3 dipolar addition.9only formation no details mechanism is required). Alkyne synthesis hydration, substitution reactions, polymerization.
- Isomerism of aromatic compounds, their nomenclature, structure of benzene ring. General mechanism of aromatic electrophilic substitution (elementary treatment)
- Methods of synthesis, nitration, Sulphonation, halogenation. Friedel-crafts alkylation and acylation, reaction, nuclear and side chain helogination.
- Conformation of Acyclic organic molecules: Strain in molecules, Bond stretching and compression, Bond angle bending: Bond angle strain, Bond torsion: Torsional strain, Steric repulsion: van der Waals strain, Nomenclature for distinguishing conformations of organic molecules, Dihedral angle and Torsion angle, Torsional curves of a few simple acyclic compounds(ethane, propane, n- butane), Butane-gauche interaction, calculation of % of anti and gauche forms n- butane at 2980K, Conformation of some H- bonded acyclic molecules. Conformation of cyclic organic molecules mainly Cyclohexane: Chair and Boat Form, Topomerisation of Chair form of cyclohexane; The Conformational preference of subsituent in chair cyclohexane, Conformations of a few substituted chair form of cyclohexane (1, 2- or 1 ,3- or 1 ,4- dimethylcyclohexane), Conformations of cyclohexane-1,4-dione, 2- alkyl and 3- alkyl ketone effect, ? - haloketone effect, Conformations of cyclohexene: A1,2 strain, Concept of I- strain.
- Common ion effect. Principal and reaction involved in the group separation and identification of cations and anion in the Qualitative inorganic analysis.
Practical Paper code : CH –291
Full Marks: 100
- Systematic semi micro quantitative analysis of simple mixture containing not more than two basic radical and one acid radical from the following list (Spot test are to be applied whenever possible)
- Silver, lead, mercury, bismuth, copper, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, tin, iron, aluminum, chromium, zinc, manganese, cobalt, nickel, calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, & other oxides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulphides, sulphites, sulphates, nitrites, nitrates, nitrites, & phosphates, (Acid insoluble compounds & phosphate separation omitted)
Paper Code : MCG -301 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Homogeneous chemical equilibrium : Alcohols & Ethers: Phenols: Aldehydes and ketones: Carboxylic acid and their derivatives: Organic compounds containing nitrogen: Acids-Bases and Solvents: Ionic Equilibrium: EMF :
Credit : 4 (3+1)
- i) Comparative study of the following groups of elements:
- a) B, Al; b) C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; c) N, P, S, As, Sb, Bi; d) O, S, Se, Te e) F, Cl, Br, I in respect of electronic configuration, elements states, oxidation states, hydrides, halides oxides, and oxyacides.
- ii) Bonding in diborene
- Second law of thermodynamics :
- Carnot cycle, Elementary treatment of entropy, free entry, work function & criterion of equilibrium. Gibbs Helmohltz equation, Clasious clapeyron equation and its application.
- Law of mass action and equilibrium constant Kp,Kc,Kx and their relationship. Le-chatelier principal- effect of temperature, pressure and addition of products of relation and inert gases. Vant’s hoff equation (derivation not required) and its application.
- Methods of synthesis, physical properties, distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Chemical reactivity. Ethers, methods of synthesis, Chemical reactivity.
- Synthesis, physical properties acidic character of phenols, chemical reaction – Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Fries rearrangement, Kolbe’s reaction, phenol formaldehyde resins (Lederer-Manasse reaction) Cresols nitro and amino phenols.(Synthesis only).
- Methods of synthesis of aldehydes and ketones, chemical reactivity of carbonyl group, cannizero reaction and adol condensation, relative reactivities of aldehyde and ketones. Perking reaction, benzoine condensation, Claisen condensation.
- Methodes of synthesis, acidity of aliphatic and aromatic acid, effects of substitutents on acidity (simple cases). Chemical reactivity. Mechanism of esterification (AAC2): methods of synthesis and reaction of acid halides, amides, esters and anhydrides.
- Aromatic nitro compounds their synthesis, reduction under different conditions. Methods of synthesis of aliphatic amines, Hinsberg’s method of separation, Hofmann degradation, Gabrie’s phthalimide synthesis, distinction between primary secondary & tertiary amines. Methods of synthesis of aromatic amines. Diazotizations and its mechanism. Synthetic application of aromatic diazonium salts.
- Modern concepts of acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, theory of solvent system, Bronsted and Lowry’s concept, Lewis concept with typical examples, applications and limitations. Strengths of acids and bases (elementary idea). Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solution, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale.
- Strong and weak electrolytes degree of dissociation. Ostwald’s dilution law. Hydrolysis, buffer, calculation of pH, salt effect, elementary, elementary idea of activity & activity co-efficient of electrolytes, ionic strength, buffer reaction of blood.
- Electro chemical cells, half-cell, electrodes potential standard electrode potential, Nernst equation, redox potential, reference electrode,standered cell, measurement of emf, determination of pH, potentiometric titration, storage battery, corrosion.
Practical Paper Code : CH-391
Full Marks: 100
Quantitative analysis through titrations:
- Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid and standardization of (a) NaOH solution and (b) KMnO4 solution.
- Preparation and standardization Mohr’s solution by KMnO4 solution.
- Preparation of standard K2Cr2O7 solution and standardization Mohr’s Salt solution. Sodium thiosulphate solution.
- Estimation of Fe(II) +Fe (III) mixture using standard solution of K2Cr2O7 Determination of Cu (II) using standard sodium thiosulphate solution
Paper Code : MOG-401 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Dilute solution: Some Reaction of Synthetic Importance: (Mechanism and Importance) Some Reagent of Synthetic Importance: Molecular Rearrangements: Organometallic Compounds: Amino acids, Peptides and Protenins: Carbohydrate: Chemicals Kinetics: Homogeneous catalysis:
Credit : 4 (3+1)
- Interhalogen compounds:
- Basic properties of iodine, pseudo halogens.
- Rault’s law, ideal solution, non- ideal solution, and qualitative treatment of colligative properties relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevationof boiling point, and osmotic pressure-their application in finding molecular weight. Van’t Hoff ‘i’ factor, plasmolysis, haemolysis, isotonic solution, normal saline, role of osmosis in living organism.
- Aldol Condensation, Arndt-Eistert Synthesis, Bayer-Villiger Reaction, Bischler-Napieralski Synthesis, Cannizzaro Reaction, Claisen Condensation, Claisen-Schmidt or Claisen Reaction, Dakin Reaction, Dieckmann Reaction, Diel’s-Alder Reaction-Diene Synthesis, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Fischer-Indole Synthesis, Fitting-Reaction, Friedal Craft Reaction, Knoevenagel Reaction, Leuckart Reaction, Mannich Reaction, Meerwein-Ponndorf-verley Reduction, Michael Reaction, Oppenaure Oxidation, Peehmann Reaction, Perkin Reaction, Reformatsky Reaction, Reimer-Tiemann Reaction, Sommelet Reaction, Ullmann Reaction, Willgerdot Reaction, Witting Reaction, Wolf-Kishner Reduction.
- Alluminium isopropoxide, Alluminium-t-butoxide, Anhydrous alluminium chloride, Boron trifluoride, N- Bromosuccinimide(NBS), Diazoacetic ester, Diazomethane, Dicyclohexylcarbodimide(DCC), Girard Reagents, Lead tetraacetate, Liquid ammonia, Lithium alluminium hydride, Osmium tetraoxide, Ozone, Perbenzoic acid, Periodic acid, Platinum and Palladium catalyst, Polyphosphoric acid, Raney nickel, Selenium, Selenium dioxide, Sodamide, Sodium borohydride, Trifluoroacetic acid.
- Introduction, Rearrangements to electron deficient atoms(C, N, O)( Pinacol-pinacolone Rearrangement, Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangement, Wolf Rearrangement, Allylic Rearrangement, Sommelet-Hauser Rearrangement, Holfmann Rearrangement, Curtiuss Rearrangement, Schmidt Rearrangement, Lossen Rearrangement, Beckmann Rearrangement, Neber Rearrangement, Baeyer-Villiger Reaction, Cumene-Hydroperoxide Rearrangement, Dakin Rearrangement); Intermolecular aromatic rearrangement ( Orton Rearrangement, Hoofmann-Martius Rearrangement); Intramolecular aromatic rearrangement ( Claisen Rearrangement, Benzidine Rearrangement); Mixed types of aromatic rearrangement, Fries Rearrangement.
- Organomagnesium Compounds, Organozinc Compounds, Organolead Compounds, Organocadmium Compounds.
- Amino acids (Preparative Methods, dipolar Nature, Chemical reaction, Detection and Configaration); Peptides (The Peptide Linkage, Peptide Synthesis, Structure of Polypeptides); Proteins (General Characteristics, Classification, Structure).
- Introduction, occurrence, classification, constitution of glucose, osazone formation. Reaction of glucose and fructose, mutration, cyclic structure- pyranose and furanose form. Epimerisation, Chain lengthening and shortening in aidoses.
- Rate, order and molecularity of a reaction, rate constants of first and second order reactions, half life period, influence of temperature on reaction rate, activation energy, determination of order of a reaction.
- Criterion of catalysis, mechanism of catalytic action, enzyme catalysis, industrial catalyst.
Practical Paper Code : CH-491
Full Marks: 100
- To determine the percentage composition of given mixture from viscosity measurement.
- To determine the percentage composition of given mixture by surface tension method.
- To determine the percentage composition of given mixture using abbe’s refractometer.
- To verify the law of refraction of mixtures such as glycerol or water using abbe’s refractometer.
- To determine the specific rotation of a given optically active compound.
- To determine the percentage composition of a substance in its aqueous solution using polarimeter.
- To determine the solubility of benzoic acid in water at room temperature.
- To study the adsorption of acetic acid/ oxalic acid an activated charcoal and verify the freundlich’s adsorption isotherm.
- To study the distribution of acetic acid between benzoic acid/ CCl4 CHCl3& water.
- To study the specific reaction rate of the acid- catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl acetate at room temperature.
- To determine the pH of a given solution using bromocresol green/ methyl red indicator.