BSC In Molecular Biology...
DURATION : Six Semesters (Three Years)
Total Marks = 3600
Theoretical Papers
24 Papers (Marks = 2400)
Total Credit = 16 Credits per semester = 6 x 16 = 96
Practical / Project Papers
12 papers (Marks = 1200)
Total Credit = 4 Credits per semester = 6 x 4 = 24
Total Credit in 6 Semesters = 96 + 24 = 120
4 credit (Theory) means 3 lecture hours & 1 Tutorial per week
or 42 lectures per semester per paper
2 credit (Lab.) means at least 40 hours of lab work per semester per paper

COURSE STRUCTURE

1. In view of the increasing demand for training manpower in the area of Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, it was consensus of the committee (Faculties & experts) that this course should be broad based and should be able to give a good insight into modern biology and important component of hands-on training to the students. Thus by nature it will be an interdisciplinary course.

2. a) For admission, students from Science stream with 10+2 (HS exam) or equivalent, ISC, CBSE exam will be eligible.
b) Admission will be through selection test CET (Common Entrance Examination) and also on the basis of the merit.
c) The number of students for this course to be admitted this year will be 30.

3. The fee structure should be on no grant basis as applicable to technical courses.

BSc :Molecular Biology (Hons) Syllabus
FIRST SEMESTER
Paper (Theoretical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
MSA-101 Macromolecular Structure & Analysis 100 3+1 42
BPI-102 Biophysics & Instrumentation 100 3+1 42
CSD-103 Cell Structure & Dynamics 100 3+1 42
BMT-104 Biomathematics - I 100 3+1 42
CH-101 Chemistry (Pass) 100 3+1 42
CA-101 Introduction to Computer (Pass) 100 3+1 42
Paper (Practical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
BMI–192 Basic Microscopy & Instrumentation 100 2 40
BCH–191 Biochemistry 100 2 40
CH-191 Chemistry (Pass) 100 2 40
CA-191 Introduction to Computer (Pass) 100 2 40
SECOND SEMESTER
Paper (Theoretical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
OMB-201 Organic Mechanisms in Biology 100 3+1 42
PTG-202 Principles of Transmission Genetics 100 3+1 42
POM-203 Principles of Microbiology 100 3+1 42
GGR-204 Gene Expression and Gene Regulation 100 3+1 42
CH-201 Chemistry (Pass) 100 3+1 42
CA-201 Introduction to C-Programming & Digital Logic (Pass) 100 3+1 42
Paper (Practical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
CGT-292 Cyto-genetic Techniques 100 2 40
MIC–293 Microbiology 100 2 40
CH-291 Chemistry (Pass) 100 2 40
CA-291 Introduction to C-Programming & Digital Logic (Pass) 100 2 40
THIRD SEMESTER
Paper (Theoretical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
MCG-301 Microbial Genetics 100 3+1 42
POI-302 Principles of Immunology 100 3+1 42
PAT-303 Plant and Animal Tissue Culture Techniques and applications 100 3+1 42
GNO-304 Genome Organization 100 3+1 42
CH-301 Chemistry (Pass) 100 3+1 42
CA-301 Introduction to Data Structure & Computer Organization (Pass) 100 3+1 42
Paper (Practical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
IMN–392 Immunology 100 2 40
TCT–393 Tissue Culture Techniques 100 2 40
CH-391 Chemistry (Pass) 100 2 40
CA-391 Introduction to Data Structure & Computer Organization (Pass) 100 2 40
FOURTH SEMESTER
Paper (Theoretical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
MOG-401 Molecular Genetics 100 3+1 42
CBB-402 Computational Biology & Bio-informatics 100 3+1 42
BDT-403 Biodiversity & Taxonomy 100 3+1 42
TGE-404 Tools for analyzing Gene Expression 100 3+1 42
CH-401 Chemistry (Pass) 100 3+1 42
CA-401 Introduction to DBMS, Computer Network & Numerical Analysis (Pass) 100 3+1 42
 
Paper (Practical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
MBT–491 Molecular Biology Techniques 100 2 40
BIN–492 Bio-informatics 100 2 40
CH-491 Chemistry (Pass) 100 2 40
CA-491 Introduction to DBMS, Computer Network & Numerical Analysis (Pass) 100 2 40
FIFTH SEMESTER
Paper (Theoretical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
DPB-501 DNA Typing, Proteomics & Beyond 100 3+1 42
RDT-502 Recombinant DNA Technology 100 3+1 42
EVB-503 Environmental Biotechnology 100 3+1 42
GEM-504 Genetic Modification in Agriculture, Food & Industry 100 3+1 42
Paper (Practical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
GET-591 Genetic Engineering Techniques 100 2 40
AGE–592 Analysis of Gene Expression 100 2 40
SIXTH SEMESTER
Paper (Theoretical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
MHG-601 Model Organisms in Human Genome Project 100 3+1 42
MMB-602 Medical Molecular Biology 100 3+1 42
MLG-603 Molecular Human Genetics 100 3+1 42
MTI-604 Molecular Technology : Social, Legal & Ethical Issues 100 3+1 42
Paper (Practical) :
Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes / Semester
PRO–691 Project on Biodiversity 100 2 40
DSS–692 Dissertation on Molecular biology 100 2 40
 
BSc (H) Syllabus in Molecular Biology
FIRST SEMESTER
Paper Code : MSA –101 (Theoretical)      Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Macromolecular Structure & Analysis      Lecture period : 42L

1. Carbohydrates : Structural aspects – Introduction & Occurrence, Classification of Mono-, Di- and Polysaccharides, Reducing & Non-reducing Sugars, Constitution of Glucose & Fructose, Osazone formation, Pyranose & Furanose forms, Determination of ring size, Inter-conversion of mono-saccharides. (4 Periods)

2. Lipids : Structural aspects – General introduction, Classification & Structure of Simple & Compound lipids, Properties of Lipid aggregates (elementary idea), Biological membrane, Membrane protein – structural aspects, Lipoproteins (elementary idea). (4 Periods)

3. Proteins : Structural aspects – General introduction, Classification & General characteristics, Structure of Primary, Secondary, Tertiary & Quaternary proteins (elementary idea), a- & b- chains of proteins (elementary idea), Classification of Amino acids. (5 Periods)

4. Nucleic acid : Structural aspects – Components of DNA and RNA, Nucleosides & Nucleotides (introduction, structure & bonding), Double helical structure of DNA (Watson-Crick model), various forms of DNA. (5 Periods)

5. Chemical & Enzymatic Kinetics - An introduction to enzyme; How enzyme works; Reaction rate; Thermodynamic definitions; Principles of catalytic power and specificity of enzymes; Enzyme kinetics – Approach to mechanism. (5 Periods)

6. Genes are DNA – DNA is the genetic material, DNA is a double helix, DNA replication is semi-conservative, mutations change the sequence of DNA, a gene codes for a single polypeptide, recombination occurs by physical exchange of DNA, genetic code is triplet. (5 Periods)

Mutation – Occurrence, kinds of Mutation, spontaneous & induced Mutation, Mutagens, detection of Mutation, Lethal Mutations, Biochemical Mutations, Phenotypic effects of Mutation, Molecular basis of Mutation, Significance & Practical applications of Mutation. (4 Periods)

8. Expression of genetic information : from Transcription to Translation - The Relationship between genes and protein, The transcriptions : The basic process, Transcription and RNA Processing in Eukaryotic Cells, Encoding genetic information, Decoding the codons : the role of transfer RNAs. (5 Periods)

9. Regulation of mRNA stability – capping, polyadenylation, pre-mRNA splicing, formation of commitment complex, creation of catalytic sites, trans-esterification reactions, mRNA surveillance. (5 Periods)

Paper Code : BPI -102 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Biophysics & Instrumentation
Lecture period : 42L
1. General Biophysical methods – Measurement of pH, Radioactive labeling & counting, Autoradiography. (3 Periods)

2. Separation & Identification of Materials - concept of Chromatography (Partition Chromatography, Paper Chromatography, Adsorption Chromatography, TLC, GLC, Ion Exchange Chromatography, Gel Chromatography, HPLC, Affinity Chromatography); Electrophoresis (Gel Electrophoresis, Paper Electrophoresis). (8 Periods)

3. Centrifugation – Basic Principle of Centrifugation, Instrumentation of Ultracentrifuge (Preparative, Analytical), Factors affecting Sedimentation velocity, Standard Sedimentation Coefficient, Centrifugation of associating systems, Rate-Zonal centrifugation, sedimentation equilibrium Centrifugation. (5 Periods)

4. Microscopy – Light microscopy, Bright & Dark Field microscopy, Fluorescence microscopy, Phase Contrast microscopy, TEM, SEM. (6 Periods)

5. X-Ray Crystallography – X-ray diffraction, Bragg equation, Reciprocal lattice, Miller indices & Unit cell, Concept of different crystal structure, determination of crystal structure [concept of rotating crystal method, powder method]. (6 Periods)

6. Spectroscopy: Raman Spectroscopy – What is Raman effect, Quantum mechanical reason of Raman effect, Molecular Polarizability, Polarizability ellipsoid, Experimental technique of Raman effect, Basic concept of Pure Rotational & Vibrational, Raman spectra of simple molecule (linear molecule). NMR Spectroscopy – Basic principle of NMR spectroscopy, Experimental technique & instrumentation, Chemical shift, Hyperfine splitting, Relaxation process. Absorption Spectroscopy – Simple theory of the absorption of light by molecules, Beer-Lambert law, Instrumentation for measuring the absorbance of visible light, Factors affecting the absorption properties of a Chromophore. (14 Periods)

Paper Code : CSD -103 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Cell Structure & Dynamics
Lecture period : 42L

1. Origin of life on Earth - The theory of Extraterrestrial contact - import of life through meteorites. Theory of Chemical Evolution, Primitive Earth Conditions - anoxic reductive atmosphere, relatively high temperature, Volcanic eruption, radioactivity, high frequency UV radiation. Abiotic formation of sugars, amino acids, organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, glycerol and formation of nucleotides and their polymerization to RNA on reactive Surfaces, polymerization of amino acids to Polypeptides and Proteins. Ribozymes and RNA World. Formation of DNA, Formation of nucleoproteins, Prions, Natural Selection of Self replicating Polymers. (8 periods)

2. Basics of Cell Biology (structure & function) – Discovery of cell and Cell Theory; Comparison between plant and animal cells; Cell wall; Plasma membrane; Modification of plasma membrane and intracellular junctions; Cytoskeleton; Protoplasm; Mitochondria; Chloroplast; ER; Golgi complex; Lysosome, endosome and microbodies; Ribosome; Centriole; Nucleus; Chemical components of a cell; Catalysis and use of energy by cells. (10 Periods)

3. Biogenesis of Cellular organelles – Biosynthesis of mitochondria, chloroplast, ER, Golgi complex; Biosynthetic process in ER and golgi apparatus; Protein synthesis and folding in the cytoplasm; Degradation of cellular components. (6 Periods)

4. Structure and function of Prokaryotic cell & its components - The Slime and the cell wall of bacteria containing peptidoglycan and related molecules; the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, the cytoplasmic membrane. Water and ion transport, mesosomes, flagella, Pilus, fimbriae, ribosomes, carboxysomes, sulfur granules, glycogen, polyphosphate bodies, fat bodies, gas vesicles; endospores, exospores, cysts. Mycelia of fungi and Actinomycetes, Cytoskeleton filament, heterocysts and akinets of Cyanobacteria, Gliding and motility. (8 Periods)

5. Membrane structure & transport – Models of membrane structure, Membrane lipids, proteins and carbohydrates; Solute transport by Simple diffusion, Facilitated diffusion and Active transport (6 Periods)

6. Cell cycle - An overview of cell cycle; Components of cell cycle control system; Intracellular and Extra-cellular control of cell division, Programmed cell death (Apoptosis), intrinsic & extrinsic pathways of cell death, Apoptosis in relation with Cancer, Viral disease (AIDS) & Organ transplant. (4 Periods)

Paper Code : BMT-104 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Biomathematics
Lecture period : 42L

Classical Algebra

Complex Number including D’Moivre’s Theorem, Logarithm (only algebra, without Series expansion), Binomial Theorem (without infinite series).

Determinant, Matrix, Rank of Matrices by Diagonalisation method. (12 Periods)

Calculus – I [For functions of single variable]

Limit, Continuity, Differentiation (including differentiability), Successive Differentiation, Expansion of Functions – Rolle’s theorem, Mean Value theorem, Integration – Definite and Indefinite (ordinary, method of substitution, special trigonometric function, partial fraction) Application of integration to find area, Differential equations --homogeneous and Linear ODE’s and its simple applications to biological problems. (20 Periods)

Calculus – II [For functions of two variables]

Partial Differentiation including Euler’s theorem and it’s application. (10 Periods)

Paper Code : BMI –192 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Basic Microscopy & Instrumentation
Practical period : 40

Microscopy – Light microscopy : principles, parts & function, Operation. (5 Periods)
Image analysis of different classes of Microbes. (5 Periods)
Preparation of Microbial media (bacteria, yeast, mold, algae, protozoa) (5 Periods)
Sterilization: principles & operations – Autoclave, Hot Air Oven, Filtration, Laminar Air Flow (4 Periods)
Principles & operations of Incubators & Shakers (4 Periods)
Principle & operation of Centrifuge (4 Periods)
Principle & operation of pH meter (3 Periods)
Principle & operation of Colorimeter (3 Periods)
Principle & operation of Spectrophotometer (3 Periods)
Electrophoresis techniques (4 Periods)
Paper Code BCH–191 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Biochemistry
Practical period : 40

Estimation of protein by Folin Lowry method (3 Periods)
Determination of Km and V max of amylase. (4 Periods)
TLC separation of Amino acids /sugars (3 Periods)
Determination of Iodine number of a fat (3 Periods)
Estimation of RNA by Orcinol method (3 Periods)
Estimation of DNA by diphenyl amine method (3 Periods)
Verification of Beer’s Law Spectrophotometrically (4 Periods)
Testing of Blood Sugar (3 Periods)
Testing of Liver Function Test (Bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline Phosphatase, Albumin, Globulin, Total Protein) (8 Periods)
Testing of Renal Function Test (Urea, Uric acid, Creatine, Creatinine) (6 Periods)

SECOND SEMESTER
Paper Code : OMB-201 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Organic Mechanisms in Biology
Lecture period : 42L

1. Common Mechanisms in Biological Chemistry – Overview of Digestion, Absorption, Metabolism (Anabolism & Catabolism), Nutrition, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Excretion. (4 Periods)

2. Biomolecules – Carbohydrates (Anomaric carbon, Mutarotation, Simple Chemical reactions of Glucose, Reducing & Non-reducing Sucrose, Maltose & Lactose, Elementary idea of structure of Starch & Cellulose); Proteins (Denaturation of proteins, Enzyme Kinetics), Nucleic acids (Mechanisms of Replication, Transcription & Protein synthesis, Genetic code); Hormones (classification, structural features & functions in bio-systems); Vitamins (classification, functions of vitamins in bio-systems). (10 Periods)

3. Lipid Metabolism – Structures and roles of Fatty acids & Glycerols, beta oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, oxidation of odd chain fatty acids, energy yield, ketone bodies. (6 Periods)

4. Carbohydrate Metabolism – Aerobic & Anaerobic glycolysis, sequence of reactions in glycolysis, regulation in glycolysis, citric acid cycle, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis (sequence of reactions & regulation), Pentose-phosphate pathway (sequence of reactions & regulation), extraction of energy from food sources. (8 Periods)

5. Amino acid Metabolism – Amino acid breakdown (amino acid deamination, Urea cycle, metabolic breakdown of individual amino acids – glucogenic & ketogenic amino acids), amino acids as biosynthetic precursors (haem biosynthesis & degradation, biosynthesis of epinephrine, dopamine, seretonin, GABA, histamin, glutathione); biosynthesis of essential & non-essential amino acids. (8 Periods)

6. Nucleotide Metabolism – biosynthesis of purine & pyrimidine (de novo & salvage pathway); degradation of purine & pyrimidine. (6 Periods)

Paper Code : PTG-202 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Principles of Transmission Genetics
Lecture period : 42L

1. Science of Genetics – an overview of modern history of Genetics before 1860, 1860-1900, 1900-1944, 1944-Present, about 3 general areas of Genetics (Classical, Molecular & Evolutionary). (3 Periods)

2. Mendelism & Chromosome Theory – Mendel’s principles, applications of Mendel’s principles, Chromosome Theory of Heredity (Sutton-Boveri), Inheritance patterns, phenomenon of Dominance, Inheritance patterns in Human (Sex-linked, Autosomal, Mitochondrial, Unifactorial, Multi-factorial). (4 Periods)

3. Extension of Mendelism – Deviation from Mendel’s Dihybrid phenotype, Linkage, Sutton’s view on linkage, Morgan’s view on linkage, Bateson & Punnet’s Coupling & Repulsion hypothesis. (2 Periods)

4. Linkage & Crossing over - Chromosome theory of Linkage, kinds of linkage, linkage groups, types of Crossing over, mechanism of Meiotic Crossing over, kinds of Crossing over, theories about the mechanism of Crossing over, cytological detection of Crossing over, significance of Crossing over. (3 Periods)

5. Allelic Variation & Gene function – Multiple allele, Genetic interaction, Epiststic interactions, Non-Epistatic inter-allelic genetic interactions, Atavism/Reversion, Penetrance (complete & incomplete), Expressivity, Pleiotropism, Modifier/Modifying genes. (3 Periods)

6. Non-Mendelian inheritance – Evidences for Cytoplasmic factors, cytoplasmic inheritance, extra-nuclear inheritance (mitochondrial, chloroplast), non-chromosomal inheritance, maternal inheritance, uniparental inheritance. (3 Periods)

7. Chromosomal variation in Number & Structure – Euploidy, Non-disjunction & Aneuploidy, Aneuploid segregation in plants, Aneuploidy in Human, Polyploidy in Plants & Animals, Induced Polyploidy, applications of Polyploidy, Chromosomal Mosaics, Polytene chromosome in Diptera, Deletion, Duplication, Inversion, Translocation, Position Effect, Centromeric & Non-centromeric breaks in chromosomes, chromosomal rearrangements in Human being, Chromosomal aberrations & evolution. (4 Periods)

8. Chromosome Mapping - Haploid mapping (2 point & 3 point cross), Diploid mapping (Tetrad analysis), determination of linkage groups, determination of map distance, determination of gene order, cytological mapping. (4 Periods)

9. Human Cyto-Genetics – Human karyotype, Banding techniques, classification, use of Human Cyto-genetics in Medical science, Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortions, viable monosomies & trisomies, chromosomal deletions & duplications, genetics of chromosomal inversions & translocations, human traits, Genomic position effects on Gene expression. (4 Periods)

10. Pedigree analysis – Symbols of Pedigree, Pedigrees of Sex-linked & Autosomal (dominant & recessive), Mitochondrial, Incomplete dominance & Penetrance. (4 Periods)

11. Formulating & Testing Genetic Hypothesis –problems of Sex-linkage, problems of genes with Multiple alleles, problems of gene interactions, Chi-square, t-test. (8 Periods)

Paper Code : POM -203 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Principles of Microbiology
Lecture period : 42L

1. Overview of history of Microbiology - Biogenesis and abiogenesis Contributions of Redi, Spallanzani, Needham, Pasteur, Tyndal, Joseph Lister, Koch [Germ Theory], Edward Jenner and Flemming [Penicillin], Scope of Microbiology. (4 Periods)

2. Classification of Microbes - Systems of classification, Numerical taxonomy, Identifying characters for classification, General properties and principles of classification of microorganisms Systematics of bacteria, Nutritional types [Definition and examples]. Classification on the basis of oxygen requirement. (6 Periods)

3. Concept of Sterilization - Definition of sterilization, dry and moist heat, pasteurization, tyndalization; radiation, ultrasonication, filtration. Physical and Chemical methods of sterilization; disinfection sanitization, antisepsis sterilants and fumigation. Determination of phenol coefficient of disinfectant. (6 Periods)

4. Stains and staining techniques – Definition of auxochrome , chromophores, dyes, Classification of stains, Theories of staining, Mechanism of gram staining, acid fast staining, negative staining, capsule staining, flagella staining, endospore staining. (6 Periods)

5. Microbes in Extreme Environment – Nature, special features of the thermophilic, methanogenic and halophilic Archaea; photosynthetic bacteria, Cyanobacteria some Archaea who live in extreme conditions like cold, and space. (6 Periods)

6. Pathogenic Microorganisms – List of common bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of human beings [Name of the disease, causative pathogen, parts affected] (4 Periods)

7. Basic concepts of Virology - General characteristics of viruses, differences between bacteria and viruses. Classification of viruses Physical and chemical Structures of different Viruses on the basis of capsid symmetry - enveloped (Herpes virus), helical (TMV) and icosahedral (Polyoma viruses), Capsids, complex (Bacteriophage, and Virion size, enveloped (Herpes), helical (TMV) and icosahedral (Polyoma), Capsids. (10 Periods)

Paper Code : GGR -204(Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Gene expression and Gene Regulation
Lecture period : 42L

1. Transcription: Enzymatic Synthesis of RNA Basic features of RNA synthesis, E.coli RNA polymerase, Classes of RNA molecules, processing of tRNA and rRNA in E.coli, Transcription in Eukaryotes, Eukaryotic rRNA genes, formation of eukaryotic tRNA molecules, RNA Polymerases of eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II Promoters, Eukaryotic Promoters for RNA polymerase III, Hypersensitive sites, Upstream activation sites and enhancers, Splicing mechanisms, Splicing of tRNA precursors, Splicing of rRNA precursors, Splicing without a protein enzyme. (8 Periods)

2. Translation: Outline of Translation, The Genetic Code, The Decoding System, Codon Anticodon interaction, The special properties of the prokaryotic Initiator tRNAfMet, Transfer RNA genes, suppressors, Ribosomes, Protein Synthesis, Complex Translation units, Some numerical parameters of Protein synthesis, Inhibitors and Modifiers of protein synthesis, Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes. (8 Periods)

3. Regulation of activity of Genes and Gene products in Prokaryotes: General aspects of Regulation, The lactose system and the operon model, The Galactose operon, The Arabinose operon, The Tryptophan operon, Relative positions of Promoters and Operators, Regulons, Regulation of Translation, Regulation of the synthesis of Ribosomes, Unregulated changes in gene expression, Feedback Inhibition. (12 Periods)

4. Regulation in Eukaryotes: Regulatory strategies in Eukaryotes, Gene alteration (Gene loss, Gene amplification, Gene rearrangement: the joining of coding sequences in the immune system) Transcriptional Control by hormones, Regulation mediate through Transcription factors, Regulation of enhancer activity, Methylation, Regulation of processing, Translational control, Regulation of gene expression in plant cells by light. (14 Periods)

Paper Code : CGT–292 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Cytogenetics Techniques
Practical period : 40

1. Basic sterilization techniques required for Media preparation & Cytological techniques (5 Periods)

2. Media preparation technique (6 Periods)

3. Culture of Human, Plant & Animal cells (8 Periods)

4. Preparation of Slides (5 Periods)

5. Staining of Slides (6 Periods)

6. Image analysis & Karyotyping (10 Periods)

Paper Code : MIC–293 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Microbiology
Practical period : 40

1. Sampling and quantification of microorganisms in air, soil and water. (6 Periods)

2. Isolation of bacteria [Streak plate, spread plate, pour plate, serial dilution] (6 Periods)

3. Identification of microorganisms from the habitats [simple staining, differential staining, acid fast staining, capsule staining, spore staining and motility] (6 Periods)

4. Observation of morphology - shape and arrangement of cells. (6 Periods)

5. Methods of inoculation of different microbes in selective media. (6 Periods)

6. Microscopic measurements, micrometer (ocular and stage), haemocytometer. (6 Periods)

7. Microscopic study of phytoplanktons & zooplanktons. (2 Periods)

THIRD SEMESTER
Paper Code : MCG -301 (Theoretical) Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Microbial Genetics Lecture period : 42L

1. Prokaryotic Genomes - Physical organization of bacterial genomes (Structure of the bacterial nucleoid, Replication and partitioning of the bacterial genome and Genome of Archaea). (4 Periods)

2. Mechanism of genetic exchange : Plasmid and bacterial sex, Types of plasmids (F Plasmid : a Conjugate plasmid’, Mobilization of Non-conjugative plasmid, R plasmid, Col plasmid Copy number and incompatibility), Episomes. Transposable elements (Insertion sequence and transposons, Integrons and Antibiotic-Resistance cassettes, Multiple Antibiotic Resistant bacteria, Mu–virus); Bacterial Genetics (Mutant phenotype, DNA mediated Transformation; Conjugation (Cointegrate Formation and Hfr Cells, Time–of–Entry Mapping, F’ Plasmid); Transduction (Generalized transduction, Specialized Transduction)- gene mapping. (12 Periods)

3. Molecular Mechanism of gene regulation in prokaryotes - Transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes (inducible and repressible system, positive regulation and negative regulation); Operon concept – lac, trp, Ara operons. (6 Periods)

4. Bacteriophages: Stages in the Lytic Life Cycle of a typical phage, Properties of a phage infected bacterial culture, Specificity in phage infection, E. coli PhageT4, E.coli Phage T7, E.coli phage lambda, Immunity to infection, Prophage integration, Induction of prophage, Induction & Prophage excision, Repressor, Structure of the operator and binding of the repressor and the Cro product, Decision between the lytic and lysogenic Cycles, Transducing phages, E.coli phage phiX174, filamentous DNA phages, Single stranded RNA phages, The lysogenic Cycle. (15 Periods)

5. Bacteriophage Genetics - Benzer’s fine structure of gene in bacteriophage T4 : Plaque Formation and Phage Mutants, Genetic recombition in the lytic cycle, (concept of recon, muton, cistron). (5 Periods)

Paper Code : POI -302 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Principles of Immunology
Lecture period : 42L

1. Immune Response - an overview, components of mammalian immune system, molecular structure of Immunoglobulins or Antibodies, Humoral & Cellular immune responses, T-lymphocytes & immune response (cytotoxic T-cell, helper T-cell, suppressor T-cells), T-cell receptors, genome rearrangements during B-lymphocyte differentiation, Antibody affinity maturation class switching, assembly of T-cell receptor genes by somatic recombination. (8 Periods)

2. Regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression – clonal selection theory, allotypes & idiotypes, allelic exclusion, immunologic memory, heavy chain gene transcription, genetic basis of antibody diversity, hypotheses (germ line & somatic mutation), antibody diversity, alternate pathways of transcript splicing, variable joining sites & somatic mutation, role of antibody (alone, in complement activation & with effector cells), monoclonal antibodies. (8 Periods)

3. Major Histocompatibility complexes – class I & class II MHC antigens, antigen processing. (3 Periods)

4. Immunity to infection – immunity to different organisms, pathogen defense strategies, avoidance of recognition, inactivation of host-immune effector mechanisms. (3 Periods)

5. Immuno-techniques - Blood grouping, Antigen-Antibody reactions : agglutination, precipitation, immuno-electrophoresis, Coomb’s test, ELISA, RIA. (8 Periods)

6. Vaccines & Vaccination – adjuvants, cytokines, DNA vaccines, recombinant vaccines, bacterial vaccines, viral vaccines, vaccines to other infectious agents, tumor vaccines, principles of vaccination, passive & active immunization, immunization programs & role of WHO in immunization programs. (5 Periods)

7. Auto-immune diseases – autoimmunity & auto-immune diseases, factors contributing development of auto-immune diseases, mechanism of development, breakdown of self-tolerance, rejection of transplants, molecular mimicry, diagnosis & treatment of auto-immune diseases, replacement therapy, suppression of auto- immune processes, nature of auto-antigens, immunodeficiency, AIDS. (5 Periods)

8. Immune Response of Plants. (2 Periods)

Paper Code : PAT-303 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Plant and Animal Tissue Culture
Techniques and its application
Lecture period : 42L

1. Introduction to Techniques - Introductory history, Laboratory organization, Media, Aseptic manipulation. (3 Periods)

2. Basic concepts in cell culture - cell culture, Cellular Totipotency, Somatic Embryogenesis. (5 Periods)

3. In vitro culture : approaches & methodologies - preparation steps for tissue culture, surface sterilization of plant tissue material, basic procedure for aseptic tissue transfer, incubation of culture. (5 Periods)

4. Tissue nutrition : Growth Hormones - Plant cells (Composition of culture media, Growth hormones, Vitamins, Unidentified supplements, selection of media); Animal cells (substrate on which cells grow, Feeder layer on substrate, gas phase for tissue culture, media and supplements). (6 Periods)

5. Tissue culture methodologies - Plant cells (Callus Culture, Cell Suspension Culture, Organ Micro-culture, plant micro-propagation, Somatic Embryogenesis); Animal cells (Source of tissue, primary culture, differentiation of cells, growth kinetics, animal cell lines and their origin and chracterization). (6 Periods)

6. Cloning & Selection of specific cell types – cloning, somatic cell fusion and HAT selection, Medium suspension fusion, selection of Hybrid clone, production of monoclonal antibodies. (6 Periods)

7. Organ Culture - Culture of embryonic organs, whole embryo culture, culture of adult organs. (7 Periods)

Paper Code : GNO-304 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Genome Organization
Lecture period : 42L

1. The content of the genome : Genomes can be mapped by linkage, restriction cleavage or DNA sequence, RFLPs and SNPs for genetic mapping, Eukaryotic genomes contain both non repetitive and repetitive DNA sequences, Human genome has fewer genes than expected, Organelles have DNA, Mitochondrial DNA organization is variable, Mitochondria evolved by endosymbiosis, Chloroplast genome codes for many proteins and RNAs. (10 Periods)

2. DNA Replication –The Basic Rule for Replication of all Nucleic acids. The Geometry of DNA Replication, Enzymology of DNA replication, Discontinuous Replication, Events in the Replication Fork, Initiation of Synthesis of the Leading Strand, Bidirectional Replication, Termination of Replication, Methylation of DNA and Mismatch Repair, Replication of Eukaryotic Chromosomes. (8 Periods)

3. Genetic Recombination Between Homologous DNA Sequences: Types of Recombination, Breakage and Rejoining and Heteroduplexes, Branch migration, Mismatch Base Pairs and Their Resolution, Pairing of DNA molecules, Recombination in bacterial transformation, Exchange between homologous double stranded molecules, Models for Homologous Recombination, The Holliday Model, The Asymmetric Strand Transfer Model, The recBC Protein, Transformation in Yeast. (8 Periods)

4. Transposable Elements: An Overview of Transposition, Insertion sequences, Detection of Transposition in Bacteria, Types of bacterial Transposons, Transposition, Replication of a transposon in the course of transposition between two plasmids, The Cointegrate as an Intermediate in transposition of Tn3, Deletions and Inversions Caused by Transposons, Role of IS elements in Hfr Formation, Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes, Retroposons, Limitation of Transposition. (10 Periods)

5. Mutagenesis, Mutations, and Mutants- Terminology,Types of Mutations and their Notation, Biochemical Basis of Mutants, Mutagenesis, Mutational Hot Spots, Reversion. (6 Periods)

Paper Code : IMN–392 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Immunology
Practical period : 40

1. Antigen-Antibody reactions – Agglutination (Blood grouping testing). (6 Periods)

2. Antibody titration (Ouchterlony Double Diffusion). (6 Periods)

3. Antigen-Antibody reactions – Immuno-electrophoresis, Rocket immuno-electrophoresis. (10 Periods)

4. Antigen-Antibody reactions – Coomb’s test. (8 Periods)

5. Antigen-Antibody reactions – ELISA. (10 Periods)

Paper Code : TCT–393 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Tissue Culture Techniques
Practical period : 40

1. In vitro Culture - Washing & Sterilization, Preparatory steps for tissue culture, surface sterilization of plant material, basic procedures for Aseptic tissue transfer, incubation of culture. (8 Periods)

2. Preparation of Culture media & Reagents - Media composition, Nutrition, Hormones. (8 Periods)

3. Tissue Culture – Callus culture, Cell suspension. (8 Periods)

4. Organ Micro-culture - Shoot tip, excised root, Leaf culture. (8 Periods)

5. Plant micro-propagation – micro-culture of plants. (8 Periods)

FOURTH SEMESTER
Paper Code : MOG-401 (Theoretical) Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Molecular Genetics Lecture period : 42L

1. How to clone a gene - What is clone, Overview of the procedure, Gene library, Hybridization. (4 Periods)

2. Purification and Separation of nucleic acids – Extraction and Purification of nucleic acids, Detection and Quantitation of Nucleic acids, Gel Electrophoresis. (8 Periods)

3. Cutting and Joining DNA – Restriction Endonucleases, Ligation, Alkaline Phosphate, Double Digest, Modification of Restriction Fragments ends, Other Ways of joining DNA Molecules. (6 Periods)

4. Vectors – Plasmid vectors, Vectors based on the lambda Bacteriophage, Cosmids, M13 vectors, Expression vectors, Vectors for cloning and expression in Eukaryotic cells, Super vectors : YACs and BACs. (8 Periods)

5. Amplifying DNA : PCR and Cell based DNA Cloning – The importance of DNA Cloning, PCR : basic features and application, Principles of Cell-based DNA Cloning, Cloning System for amplifying different sized fragments, Cloning System for producing single-stranded and mutagenized DNA. (8 Periods)

6. Nucleic Acid Hybridization : Principle and application - Preparation of nucleic probes, Principle of Nucleic acid hybridization, Nucleic acid hybridization assays, and microarrays. (8 Periods)

Paper Code : CBB-402 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Computational Biology & Bio-informatics
Lecture period : 42L

1. Introduction to Genomics - information flow in biology, DNA sequence data, Experimental approach to genome sequence data, genome information resources. (8 Periods)

2. Functional Proteomics - protein sequence and structural data, protein information resources and secondary data bases. (8 Periods)

3. Computational Genomics - Internet basics, biological data analysis and application, sequence data bases, NCBI model, file format. (8 Periods)

4. Sequence alignment & data base search - Protein primary sequence analysis, DNA sequence analysis, pair wise sequence alignment, FASTA algorithm, BLAST, multiple sequence alignment, DATA base searching using BLAST and FASTA. (10 Periods)

5. Structural data bases - Small molecules data bases, protein information resources, protein data bank. (8 Periods)

Paper Code : BDT–403 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Biodiversity & Taxonomy
Lecture period : 42L

1. Commercial Production of Microorganisms – Industrial Fermenters, Single-cell Protein. (6 Periods)

2. Bioconversions – Biomining and bioleaching of ores (Use of thermophilic microorganisms in industrial microbiology Bio-gas, Bio-leaching, Bio-diesel. (10 Periods)

3. Microorganisms & Agriculture – Microorganisms in Agricultural Waste water treatment, Vermiculture, Microbial pesticides. (6 Periods)

4. Products from Microorganisms – Metabolites, Enzymes, Antibiotics. (6 Periods)

5. Bioremediation – Petroleum prospecting and formation of oil spills,, Wastewater treatment, chemical degradation, heavy Metals. (6 Periods)

6. Principles of Microbial growth – introduction, the ways of growing microorganisms, ways to increase yield of microbes, Batch, fed-batch and continuous cultures (definition and kinetics). (8 Periods)

Paper Code :TGE-404 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Tools for analyzing Gene Expression
Lecture period : 42L

1. Reporter Genes – Commonly used reporter genes, Analysis of gene regulation Purification and detection tags. (6 Periods)

2. Analysis at the level of gene transcription – Northern blot, In situ hybridization, Rnase protection assay, RT-PCR. (6 Periods)

3. Analysis at the level of Translation – Western blot, In situ analysis, ELISA, protein gel electrophoresis, Antibody production. (6 Periods)

4. Antisense technology- Antisense oligonucleotides, RNA interference (RNAi), RNAi therapies. (6 Periods)

5. Analysis of DNA protein interactions: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Dnase I footprinting, Chromatin immuno-precipitation assay. (10 Periods)

6. Analysis of protein-protein interactions- Pull-down assay, Yeast two hybrid assay, Coimmunoprecipitation assay, Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). (8 Periods)

Paper Code : MBT–491 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Molecular Biology Techniques
Practical period : 40

1. DNA isolation - from Plant cell (leaf of cabbage / mustard), Animal cell (goat liver), Human Blood (Fresh / Stored / Frozen) & Microbes (12 Periods)

2. Plasmid DNA isolation (6 Periods)

3. Gel electrophoresis (10 Periods)

4. Polymerase Chain Reaction (8 Periods)

5. Gel documentation & photography (4 Periods)

Paper Code : BIN–492 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Bio-informatics
Practical period : 40

1. Internet basics (10 Periods)
2. Introduction to NCBI Web sites (15 Periods)
3. Introduction to Data bases (15 Periods)

FIFTH SEMESTER
Paper Code : DPB-501 (Theoretical) Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : DNA Typing, Proteomics & Beyond Lecture period : 42L

1. DNA Typing : DNA polymorphisms: the basis of DNA typing, Minisatellite analysis, Polymerase chain reaction based analysis, Short tandem repeat analysis, Mitochondrial DNA analysis, Y chromosome analysis, Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. (10 Periods)

2. Proteomics and beyond : Analysis of the transcriptome, Proteomics-Expression analysis & Characterization of proteins, Metabolomics & global biochemical networks. (12 Periods)

3. High-throughput analysis of gene function - DNA microarrays, Protein arrays, Mass spectrometry. (10 Periods)

4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms - The nucleolar proteome, Mapping disease-associated SNPs : Alzheimer’s disease. (10 Periods)

Paper Code : RDT-502 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Recombinant DNA Technology
Lecture period : 42L

1. Gene Recombination and Gene transfer : Bacterial Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction, Episomes, Plasmids, Microinjection, Electroporation, Microprojectile, Shot Gun method, Ultrasonication, Liposome fusion, Microlaser. (8 Periods)

2. Changing genes: site-directed mutagenesis and Protein engineering: Primer extension is a simple method for site directed mutation, PCR based site directed mutagenesis, Random mutagenesis, Use of Phage display techniques to facilitate the selection of mutant peptides, Gene shuffling, production of chimeric proteins. (10 Periods)

3. Genetic engineering in animals: Production of transgenic mice, ES cells can be used for gene targeting in mice, Applications of gene targeting, Using Yeast to study Eukaryotic gene function, Therapeutic products produced by genetic engineering-blood proteins, human hormones, immune modulators and vaccines, Transgenic animals, Production of proteins of Pharmaceutical value. (12 Periods)

4. Genetic engineering in plants: Use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Arhizogenes, Ti plasmids, Strategies for gene transfer to plant cells, Direct DNA transfer to plants, Gene targeting in plants, Use of plant viruses as episomal expression vectors. (12 Periods)

Paper Code : EVB-503 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Environmental Biotechnology
Lecture period : 42L

1. Components of Environment – Hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere – definitions with examples; Interaction of man and environment; Environmental Studies as a multidisciplinary subject. (4 periods)

2. Global Environmental Problems – Green House Effect, Acid rain, El Nino, Ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, salination, biodiversity loss; chemical and radiation hazards. (4 periods)

3. Environmental pollution and degradation – Pollution of air, water and land with reference to their causes, nature of pollutions, impact and control strategies; noise pollution; environmental damage by agriculture, perspectives of pollution in urban, industrial and rural areas. Habitat Pollution by Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (DDT, PCBs, Dioxin etc), Organophosphates, Heavy Metals, Die-offs, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Nutrient pollution. (10 periods)

4. Environmental Management – Concept of health and sanitation, environmental diseases – infectious (water and air borne) and pollution related, spread and control of these diseases, health hazards due to pesticide and metal pollution, waste treatment, solid waste management, environmental standards and quality monitoring. (6 periods)

5. Environmental Protection Act – Environmental Laws, national movements, sustainable development, environmental policies, environmental economics, environmental ethics – holistic approach of environmental protection and conservation, IUCN – role in environmental protection. Concept with reference to UN – declaration, aim and objectives of human right policies with reference to India, recent north-south debate on the priorities of implementation, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (10 periods)

6. Bioremediation – Oil spills, Wastewater treatment, chemical degradation, heavy Metals. (8 periods)

Paper Code : GEM-504 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Genetic Modification in Agriculture, Food Industry and Medicine
Lecture period : 42L

1. Genetic modification – terminology, methods of genetic modification, genetic modification of bacteria, plant & animal, controversies over genetic modification, policy around the world (USA, European Union, EU regulation, Japan, China & other developing countries). (12 Periods)

2. Genetic modification in Agriculture – transgenic plants, genetically modified foods, application, future applications, ecological impact of transgenic plants. (10 Periods)

3. Genetically modified foods – organic foods, types of organic foods, identifying organic foods, organic food & preservatives. (6 Periods)

4. Genetic modification in Food industry – background, history, controversies over risks, application, future applications. (6 Periods)

5. Genetic modification in Medicine - gene therapy, types of gene therapy, vectors in gene therapy, molecular engineering, human genetic engineering, problems & ethics. (8 Periods)

Paper Code : GET–591 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Genetic Engineering Techniques
Practical period : 40

1. Transformation in E. coli DH5? (5 Periods)
2. Bacterial conjugation (4 Periods)
3. Phage Titration (5 Periods)
4. Plasmid preparation (4 Periods)
5. Restriction enzyme digestion (4 Periods)
6. Ligation (4 Periods)
7. Genomic DNA extraction (3 Periods)
8. DNA molecular size determination (3 Periods)
9. Bacterial Antibiotic sensitivity (4 Periods)
10. Bacterial gene expression (using Lac promoter system) (4 Periods)

Paper Code : AGE–592 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit = 2
Paper Name : Analysis of Gene Expression
Practical period : 40

1. Screening & Analysis:
a) GFP Cloning
b) Bacterial Gene Expression
c) Southern Hybridization (12 Periods)

2. PCR Application: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) (10 Periods)

3. DNA Fingerprinting:
a) DNA Fingerprinting (Using RAPD techniques)
b) Rice variety identification by RAPD analysis
c) Genotyping Analysis in Human (18 Periods)

SIXTH SEMESTER
Paper Code : MHG-601 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1) Lecture period : 42L
Paper Name : Model Organisms in Human Genome Project

1. Genome – about genomes of model organisms (E. coli, Yeast, Arabidopsis thaliana, C. elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, laboratory mouse, Zebra fish, Human), types of genomes, genomes & genetic variation, comparison of different genomes, genome evolution. (8 Periods)

2. Genomics – about the genomics, history, comparative genomics, comparative genomic hybridization, functional genomics. (5 Periods)

3. Genome projects – an overview of genome projects of human and other model organisms of Human Genome Project. (5 Periods)

4. Human Genome Project (HGP) – an overview of the project, goals of the project, major scientific strategies & approaches used in HGP, expected scientific & medical benefits of this project, about the organizations behind this project. (8 Periods)

5. How Human genome was mapped – physical mapping, genetic mapping, gene ontology, gene annotation. (8 Periods)

6. Technologies used in HGP – RFLP, microsatellite markers, STS, EST, DNA sequencing, DNA microarray. (8 Periods)

Paper Code : MMB-602 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Medical Molecular Biology
Lecture period : 42L

1. Molecular biology of Cancer – Activation of oncogenes, Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, Inappropriate expression of micro RNAs in cancer, Chromosomal rearrangements and cancer, Viruses and cancer, Chemical carcinogenesis. (10 Periods)

2. Gene therapy - Vectors for somatic cell gene therapy, Enhancement genetic engineering, Gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiency syndromes, Cystic fibrosis gene therapy, HIV-1 gene therapy. Retroviral mediated gene transfer. (12 Periods)

3. Genes and Human behavior - Aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior, Schizophrenia susceptibility loci. (10 Periods)

4. Stem cells & therapeutic cloning - Embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning, multi-potent adult stem cells, pluripotent adult stem cells, transgenic stem cells, Regeneration therapy. (10 Periods) (10 Periods)

Paper Code : MLG -603 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Molecular Human Genetics
Lecture period : 42L

1. Genetic mapping of Mendelian characters: Recombinants, Non-recombinants, Genetic markers, Two point mapping, Multipoint mapping, Fine mapping using extended pedigrees and ancestral haplotypes. (10 Periods)

2. Identifying Human disease genes: Principles and strategies in identifying disease genes, Positional cloning, Use of chromosomal abnormalities, confirming a candidate gene, various ways of identifying disease genes. (10 Periods)

3. Mapping and identifying genes conferring susceptibility to complex diseases: Deciding whether a non-Mendelian character is genetic: the role of family, twin and adoption studies, Linkage analysis of complex characters, Association studies and linkage disequilibrium, Identifying the susceptibility alleles, Examples that illustrate the varying success of genetic dissection of complex diseases. (12 Periods)

4. Molecular Pathology: Rules for nomenclature of mutations & databases of mutations, Loss of function mutations, Gain of function mutations, Molecular pathology from gene to disease, Molecular pathology from disease to gene, Molecular pathology of chromosomal disorders. (10 Periods)

Paper Code : MTI-604 (Theoretical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 4 (3+1)
Paper Name : Microbial Technology : Social, Legal & Ethical Issues
Lecture period : 42L

1. Molecular technologies – an overview of Genetic screening for any predisposition symptoms, Cancer screening, Cloning, Gene therapy, DNA fingerprinting,(Paternity and Forensics) in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood, PGD, transgenic organisms, xenotransplantation, GMOs. (10 Periods)

2. Social issues - public opinions against the molecular technologies. (6 Periods)

3. Legal issues – legal actions taken by countries for use of the molecular technologies. (6 Periods)

4. Ethical issues – ethical issues against the molecular technologies. (6 Periods)

5. Bioethics – Necessity of Bioethics, different paradigms of Bioethics – National & International. (6 Periods)

6. Intellectual Property Rights – Why IPR is necessary, TRIPS & IPR, IPR – national & international scenario, IPR protection of life forms. (8 Periods)

Paper Code : PRO–691 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Project on Biodiversity
Tour : 3-5 days (40 hrs)

A project work should be done individually or in a group under the guidance of one faculty of IGE on any topic related to the subject after one Educational tour to any place of India. The duration of tour will be at least 3-5 days at the spot depending upon the information/sample collection of project work. The work will be documented & also presented by the candidate in front of externals in a seminar.

Paper Code : DSS–692 (Practical)
Full Marks : 100
Credit : 2
Paper Name : Dissertation on Microbiology
Lab. work : 40 hrs

A project work should be done individually under the guidance of one faculty of IGE on any topic related to the subject & can be recorded as dissertation & also be presented by the candidate in front of externals in a seminar.
 
 
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